would constitute being a better or worse agent. Because these ends need not be the agents ends, Williams is wrong to reject the existence of external reasons. Download a handout version. In this paper, I undertake to defend a version of constitutivism appealing to a particular constitutive explanans: etiological proper function. . Explaining Constitutivist Normative Explanations, constitutivist explanations of normativity, especially those which promise to explain practical normativity by appeal to the constitutive features of agency, are often held to be in need of further supplementation by external normative features. Knowledge, Justification, and the Role of Inquiry.
It is through this capacity that we are able not merely to respond discriminatively to objects, as animals do, but to bring them under concepts and so to make claims about them which can be true or false. Virtue epistemology, that takes knowledge to be the result of successful exercise of inference in increasingly popular. This view faces serious difficulties, however, and has yet to be vindicated. I believe that normative force depends on desire. Moral assertions express attitudes, but it is unclear how. The badness of the argument itself may not be a very strong reason not to ascribe it even to a great philosopher, but Williams himself seems to point out the very flaws that make it so terrible. Naturalistic accounts of epistemic norms are sometimes thought to be susceptible to fatal objections from the burgeoning literature on evolutionary psychology. The worry goes: evolutionary psychology tells us that we were selected to have quite sub-standard epistemic systems that none-the-less are evolutionarily beneficial. I argue that we can see that even in minds like ours with inferential processes evolved to perform tasks in constraints our evolutionary ancestors faced, epistemic norms can be accounted for naturalistically by seeing that the reduction is not to how we have evolved. In this paper, I argue that these two positions can only be consistently maintained by endorsing a specific descriptive essay about central park type of account of the proper functioning of inquiry involves producing justification or warrant-conditions. Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy.