further spreading and entrenchment of Greek language in the east. Köprülü, Mehmet Fuad (1992). 184; Vryonis 1971,. . Following the Battle of Kosovo, much of the Balkans became dominated by the Ottomans. He associated himself with a co-emperor ( Augustus and each co-emperor then adopted a young colleague given the title of Caesar, to share in their rule and eventually to succeed the senior partner. After the efforts of empress Irene, the Second Council of Nicaea met in 787 and affirmed that icons could be venerated but not worshiped. In the early years of Basil I's reign, Arab raids on the coasts of Dalmatia were successfully repelled, and the region once again came under secure Byzantine control. The Legacy of Muslim Spain (2nd.). In any case, after the Arab conquests, the majority of Jews found themselves outside the Empire; those left inside the Byzantine borders apparently lived in relative peace from the 10th century onwards. The term comes from "Byzantium the name of the city of Constantinople before it became Constantine's capital.
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132 Alexios was able to app to write essay on ipad recover a number of important cities and islands, and in fact much of western Asia Minor. " (582602) ) Contribution to the chronology of Avar and Slav raids during the reign of Maurice (582602 with an excursus about the Persian Wars". In a matter of years the empire lost its richest provinces, Egypt and Syria, to the Arabs. 147 This allowed the Western provinces to achieve an economic revival that continued until the close of the century. To fend off the Huns, Theodosius had to pay an enormous annual tribute to Attila. 111 Split between Orthodox Christianity and Catholicism (1054) Further information: EastWest Schism The Macedonian period also included events of momentous religious significance.